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Bariatric Surgery to Treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(T2DM)

Bariatric Surgery is generally a weight loss surgery involving alteration of a small section of the stomach to lower average intake for food. This abates the absorption of fat and calories inducing significant weight loss.

This weight loss surgery has also proved to be beneficial in treating diseases related to obesity like type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). After reading this article you will be finding answers to all the questions listed below

What is bariatric surgery?
Is bariatric surgery a cure for diabetes?
Who can undergo bariatric surgery to treat diabetes?
Which bariatric surgery is best for people with diabetes?

What is bariatric surgery?

Bariatric surgery is a medical procedure that enables an individual to shed pounds with the aid of making modifications on their digestive systems. Different weight reduction surgeries & gastric bypass surgery make changes to digestive tract in such a way that average consumption and absorption of food and its nutrient is limited; ultimately leading to weight loss. All types of weight loss treatments involving surgery can be confined into a single term, i.e. bariatric surgery.

Is bariatric surgery a cure for diabetes?

The most common type of diabetes which accounts for approx 90 percent of cases is Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). The primary cause of this type is increased obesity. Generally, bariatric surgery is considered as weight loss treatment but has also been estimated to cure diseases caused owing to obesity. Almost all the patients who have undergone bariatric surgery claims to see development in their diabetic state. Patients seemed to have lower blood sugar, improvement in diabetes-related health problems & even in a reduction or elimination of the medication.

Who can undergo bariatric surgery to treat diabetes?

  1. Individual who has tried losing weight naturally but failed and are suffering from severe diabetes
  2. An individual suffering from extreme obesity and having body mass index (BMI) 40 or higher can opt to undergo bariatric surgery.
  3. Even if you are overweight and has a BMI above 40, you still have to qualify the medical screening test to be able to undergo bariatric surgery
  4. Evaluation and permission from cardiologist, psychologist or therapist, a registered dietitian may also be required to proceed in the surgery plan.

Which bariatric surgery is best for people with diabetes?

Among the various bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with a duodenal switch are best for people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). Procedures of both the bariatric surgeries for diabetes is explained further in article

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP)

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is one of the types of bariatric or weight loss surgery which proves to be beneficial in treating diabetes in patients.

This surgery involves making a small incision in the abdomen of the patient. Stapling of the upper part of the stomach is done so as to reduce the size hence limiting the intake of food. This small pouch is then attached directly to the part of the small intestine known as roux limb; forming a y shape.

Post this surgery food directly bypasses another part of the stomach and upper part of small intestine. So the absorption of fat and calories is reduced. Reduction in vitamins and minerals is also seen post this surgery

Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)

One of the uncommon bariatric surgery i.e. Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery compromise 80% removal of the stomach.

This surgery has proved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese people. This surgery is two major step surgery, in which initially 80 percent of the stomach is removed and later involves attaching the end part of an intestine to the duodenum near the stomach. This setup limits the intake of food, eventually limiting the absorption of fat and calories.

Treating diabetes with bariatric surgery have a portion of the risk, which anyways is less than the prolonged risk of diabetes. Before undergoing the treatment a proper evaluation from a reputed bariatric surgeon is a must to avoid complications. Dr. Abhijit Bagul is an MBBS & MS in Surgery with experience background in the bariatric and laparoscopic surgery. Consult Dr. Abhijit Bagul for detailed treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus via undergoing bariatric aka weight loss surgeries.